History Of Wallachia
History Of Wallachia
Wallachia: Wallachia or Walachia (Romanian: Țara Românească pronounced [ˈt͡sara romɨˈne̯askə], literally The Romanian Country; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia (Greater Wallachia) and Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia). Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections.
Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary. In 1417, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; this lasted until the 19th century, albeit with brief periods of Russian occupation between 1768 and 1854.
In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and officially became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. Later, following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the resolution of the elected representatives of Romanians in 1918, Bukovina, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș were allocated to the Kingdom of Romania, thereby forming the modern Romanian state.
Night Of Wallachia
Walachia, also spelled Wallachia, Romanian Țara Românească, Turkish Eflak, principality on the lower Danube River, which in 1859 joined Moldavia to form the state of Romania. Its name is derived from that of the Vlachs, who constituted the bulk of its population. Walachia was bounded on the north and northeast by the Transylvanian Alps, on the west, south, and east by the Danube River, and on the northeast by the Seret River. Traditionally it is considered to have been founded in 1290 by Radu Negru (“Radu the Black”), a voivode (or military governor) of Făgăraş in southern Transylvania (then part of Hungary), who crossed the Transylvanian Alps and settled at Câmpulung. The new principality was initially dominated by Hungary, from whose feudal domination and proselytism the Orthodox Vlachs had fled. Basarab I (reigned c. 1330–52) defeated the Hungarian king Charles Robert in 1330 and secured Walachian independence.
The new principality prospered from its rich agricultural development and from the flow of trade passing through it between northern Europe and the Black Sea. It faced dangers from Hungary, which tried to restore its domination, as well as from the Ottoman Turks, who steadily extended their control over the Balkan Peninsula during the 14th century. By 1391 Prince Mircea the Old (reigned 1386–1418) was obliged to pay tribute to the Turks, and in 1417 he acknowledged Turkish suzerainty.
Subsequently, Walachia was allowed to retain its own dynasty, territory, and religion. It was, however, compelled to pay tribute and grant trade concessions to the Ottoman Empire, to become a major supplier of agricultural goods to the Turks, to plan its foreign policy in accordance with Turkish policies, and to submit to the sultan’s choice of ruler (chosen from within the dynasty).
What is Wallachia now called?
Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections. … In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and officially became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881.
Why was Vlad the Impaler known as Dracula?
Wallachia Reign Of Dracula
Numerous princes continued Walachia’s resistance to the Turks; e.g., Vlad III (the Impaler; reigned 1448, 1456–62, and 1476–77) and Michael the Brave (reigned 1593–1601), who briefly united Walachia with Moldavia and Transylvania. But, increasingly, Walachia submitted to Turkish domination. After 1716 the Turks ceased to select Walachia’s prince from among the native dynasty and instead appointed an influential Phanariote, i.e., a Greek administrator in Ottoman service. Russian influence in Walachia increased during the 18th century, and in 1774 Russia asserted the right to intervene in its affairs, though it continued to recognize Turkish suzerainty.
During the 19th century an uprising in Walachia (1821) caused the Turks to end the unpopular Phanariote regime. Under Russian guidance a variety of political reforms were undertaken, including the adoption in 1831 of a constitution, the Règlement Organique (q.v.). The Turks’ trade monopoly was abandoned, providing lucrative opportunities for large landowners to deal with western Europe while increasing the labour burden on Walachia’s peasants, who did not receive their full freedom until 1864.
The European powers ended Russia’s protectorate after the Crimean War (1856). Walachia’s ruling assembly, which was influenced by a growing movement of Romanian nationalism, then voted (1859) to unite with Walachia’s northeastern neighbour Moldavia under Prince Alexandru Ion Cuza and to form the single state of Romania, which achieved its independence from the Turks in 1878.
Wallachia was historically situated at a cross-roads of civilizations, of strategic interest to European powers and to those situated to the East, especially the Ottoman Empire. As contested territory, Wallachia’s retention of a distinct sense of national identity over many years of foreign domination is testimony to the resilience and tenacity of its people. Yet animosity has not always characterized Wallachia’s relations with those who might be described as the religious and cultural Other. Wallachia in the seventeenth century saw a lengthy period of peace and stability. Regardless of the battles fought and changes in power and in political authority at the elite level, many people in the region discovered that they could value different aspects of the cultural traditions that impacted their lives through trade, the acquisition of education or by exposure to another religious tradition. History warns humanity as a race that civilizational clash is one possibility when civilizations confront each other as their borders. However, when the full story of what life was like in such frontier-zones as Wallachia is told, fruitful exchange between cultures will also be part of the narrative.
The name Wallachia, generally not used by Romanians themselves (but present in some contexts as Valahia or Vlahia), is derived from the Valachs—a word of German origin also present as the Slavic Vlachs—used by foreigners in reference to Romanians.
In the early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name of Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi (“Hungaro-Wallachian Land”) was also used. The term, translated in Romanian as Ungrovalahia, remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia. Official designations of the state were Muntenia and Ţeara Rumânească.
For long periods before the fourteenth century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško by Bulgarian sources (and Vlaška by Serbian sources), Walachei or Walachey by German (Transylvanian Saxon) sources. The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is Havasalföld, or literally “Snowy Lowlands” (the older form is Havaselve, which means “Land beyond the snowy mountains”). In Ottoman Turkish and Turkish, Eflak, a word derived from “Vlach,” is used.
Wallachia is situated north of the Danube (and of present-day Serbia and Bulgaria) and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Muntenia in the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia (a former banat) in the west. (A Banate was a tributary state, usually of Hungary.) The division line between the two is the Olt River.
Wallachia’s traditional border with Moldavia coincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbors Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania. Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of this line (Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper.
In the Second Dacian War (105 C.E.) western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province. The Roman limes was initially built along the Olt River (119), before being moved slightly to the east in the second century—during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245, and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region.
The area was subject to Romanization sometime during the Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was also subject to the presence of Goths and Sarmatian peoples known as the Mureş-Cerneahov culture, followed by waves of other nomadic peoples. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava (Celei) and Oescus (near Gigen) which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube (a short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Constantine I). The Goths attacked the Roman Empire south of the Danube in 332, settling north of the Danube, then later to the south. The period of Goth rule ended when the Huns arrived in the Pannonian Plain, and, under Attila the Hun, attacked and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube.
Byzantine influence is evident during the fifth to sixth century, such as the site at Ipoteşti-Cândeşti, but from the second half of the sixth century and in the seventh century, Slavic peoples crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs, Avars, and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area; [|Flavius Mauricius Tiberius]], who ordered his army to be deployed north of the Danube, encountered his troops’ strong opposition.
Wallachia was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvania at the end of the tenth century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the tenth century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs (a Turkic people) who extended their rule west through the tenth and eleventh century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumans of southern Russia took control of the lands of Moldavia and Wallachia. Beginning with the tenth century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small polities, possibly peopled by, among others, Vlachs/Romanians led by knyazes (princes) and voivodes (military commanders)—at first in Transylvania, then in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries in the territories east and south of the Carpathians.
Wallachia’s unique mix of historical and natural attractions promises a different experience each day. Discover heritage buildings and museums in the capital city, enjoy day trips to a royal palace or century-old monastery, hike the mountains or follow Brancusi’s art trail – the choice is yours.
First documented in 1459 by Vlad Tepes, Bucharest is the main city of the region and the capital of Romania. Whether you are spending most of your travel time here or just using it as a gateway to a discovery journey around Romania, Bucharest and its cultural scene is going to surprise you: 37 museums, 22 theaters, 18 art galleries, opera houses and concert halls await your visit.
The best way to explore Bucharest is to take a stroll along Calea Victoriei to Piata Revolutiei, site of the Romanian Athenaeum and the former Royal Palace, now the National Museum of Art. The old city center (near Lispcani) is a must to understand why Bucharest was known as “Little Paris” in the 1920s. Also, don’t miss the Palace of Parliament, the second largest building in the world.
Beyond Bucharest, the foothills of Wallachia give way to the Carpathian Mountains. Just an hour and a half north of Bucharest is the beautiful Prahova Valley, where the popular ski resorts of Predeal, Busteni and Sinaia are located. Sinaia is also home to the magnificent Peles Castle – a masterpiece of German new-Renaissance architecture, considered one of the best-preserved royal castles in Europe. In the summer time, these resorts are starting points to hiking trails in the nearby Bucegi Nature Park.
A must stop for art lovers is the town of Targu Jiu on the banks of the Jiu River. This former market town is closely associated with Constantin Brancusi, the Romanian artist who is considered to be the founder of modern sculpture.
Some of Romania’s most tranquil monasteries can be found in this region, including Horezu, a masterpiece of the ‘Brancovenesti’ architectural style and a designated UNESCO World Heritage site. Horezu is also a renowned pottery center, where travelers can marvel at the colorful pottery created in local workshops by talented artisans.